Kayaşehir (meaning Rock Town) covers 123.000 square meters of rock-carved hillside settlement part of the 3rd Degree Archaeological Site of 437.400 square meters.

In 2020, with the approval of the Presidency, the area was included in the scope of the Law No.5366 on Renovating, Conserving and Actively Using Dilapidated Historical and Cultural Immovable Assets.

In the rock-carved hillside settlement, it is possible to discover a monastery dating back to 6th century, a Byzantine period rock church dated to the first quarter of 13th century (1215-1217), multi-layered graves, public space, religious ritual and ceremony/meeting area, daily life spaces, business workshops, passages supported with stone doors, water tunnels, linseed oil workshops, horse stables and more. In addition, Kaya Mosque which takes its name from the Kaya Masjid at the bottom and Kara Mosque are the important structures that we encounter in the hillside settlement.

320 spaces have been discovered on the area and there are nearly 1000 gallery rooms. The spaces in the underground city, consisting of hundreds of rooms, are connected to each other by long galleries and tunnels like a labyrinth. The most important reason for choosing this place as a residential area is both the presence of the creek flowing through the valley and to be extremely geopolitically safe.

Among the archaeological finds, there are materials such as ground stones, hand-mills, moulds, pottery, metal finds, and wooden tools used in daily life in the region; and an enormous pipe collection has been reached with 708 pipes found in the same place in our country. Many artefacts have been found such as 270 oil lamps, 45 millstones, 12 grinding stones, 21 tumbaks, 51 candlesticks dating to the 18th and 19th centuries, and 46 moulds dating to the Republic period, as well as 40 coins dated mainly the periods of Sultan Abdulmejid and Sultan Abdulaziz from Mahmud II period (1808-1839).

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